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Building of the Month - January 2011

The Dennis Mausoleum in Clonbern Graveyard, CLONBERN Td., County Galway

To coincide with the publication of the NIAH Galway County Survey MÁIRÍN DODDY discusses the Dennis Mausoleum in Clonbern Graveyard

Dennis Mausoleum 01 - Representative View 

Figure 1: A photograph of the Dennis Mausoleum in 2010 prior to its restoration.  In a report in The Tuam Herald (1st May, 1869) the mausoleum was described as 'a singularly beautiful mausoleum oval shaped and composed of cast iron…  The whole, with the exception of the scrolls and devices…is painted white'.  Damaged by lightning in the later twentieth century, and thereafter the victim of vandalism, the urn had been toppled, the inscription had largely detached, and the railing, supported by slender uprights, had been bent out of shape

One of the most remarkable structures in County Galway is the cast-iron mausoleum located in the old Clonbern Graveyard, approximately twenty-one kilometres north-east of Tuam (fig. 1).  It was erected by Elizabeth Dennis (d. 1897) of Bermingham House to house the remains of her husband, Colonel Maurice Griffin Dennis (1805-63), and his brother John Irwin Dennis (d. 1869).

Dennis Mausoleum 02 - Setting 

Figure 2: A view of the Dennis Mausoleum demonstrating its visual impact in a sylvan graveyard setting

In erecting the mausoleum, Elizabeth followed the Victorian custom for Classical funerary monuments dominating their ancient graveyard settings: by contrast the nearby Egan Mausoleum (1861) resembles a diminutive chapel and assimilates into the setting (fig. 2).  The body of the structure, cylindrical in plan, is approximately 3.5 metres tall and 2 metres in diameter and is constructed of cast-iron panels bolted together, four panels tall and twelve in the round.  A draped urn, toppled by lightning in the later twentieth century, has been restored to its position crowning the apex of the roof.  Draped urns are a familiar feature in Victorian mausolea and symbolise the ancient practice of using an urn to hold the ashes of the cremated dead: the cloth guards the ashes or signifies the separation between life and death.

The door architrave and Dennis coat-of-arms overhead are riveted on to the cylinder, as is the inscription, previously in fragments, which reads: "SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF/MAURICE GRIFFIN DENNIS/LATE COLONEL/1ST BATTALION 60TH KINGS ROYAL RIFLES/WHO FELL ASLEEP IN JESUS/THIS MAUSOLEUM IS [ERECTED BY HIS WIFE]/ELIZABETH DENNIS OTHERWISE EYRE" (figs. 3-4).  Around the cylinder are the remains of biblical text, much of which has become detached.  Each of the panels also appears to have had a wreath.

Dennis Mausoleum 03 - Coat-of-Arms Dennis Mausoleum 04 - Inscription

Figures 3-4: The Dennis coat-of-arms with the legend "Toujours Fidele [Always Faithful]".  Following years of neglect much of the text, including the inscription, had detached and lay scattered on the ground below.  Recovered panels were placed in storage and reaffixed as part of the restoration of the mausoleum

The mausoleum appears to have been modelled on the ancient Choragic Monument of Lysicrates (335/334 BC), erected by the choreogos Lysicrates near the Acropolis in Athens, Greece.  Choreogos was an honorary title given to Athenian citizens who sponsored dramatic productions.  Prizes were awarded jointly to the playwright and the choregos responsible for the best production and the Choragic Monument was erected by Lysicrates to celebrate the victory of a performance he sponsored at the Theatre of Dionysus.  Regarded as the one of the first examples of the Corinthian Order in Greek monumental architecture, the Choragic Monument was illustrated by James Stuart (1713-88) and Nicholas Revett (1720-1804) in The Antiquities of Athens (1762) and has continued to be much drawn and later photographed by tourists and travellers.

Similar structures erected worldwide illustrate how the Choragic Monument emerged as a source of inspiration for architects into the nineteenth century.  Overlooking the city of Edinburgh from Calton Hill, the Dugald Stewart Monument (1831) was erected to a design by William Henry Playfair (1879-1857) as a memorial to Professor Dugald Stewart (1753-1828).  Further afield, the monument served as the model for the cupola of the Merchants' Exchange Building (1834), Philidelphia, by William Strickland (1788-1854); and for the Portland Breakwater Lighthouse (1855), Maine, by Thomas Ustick Walter (1804-87).  The latter, originally a timber structure, was reconstructed in 1875 employing curved cast-iron plates and the similarities to Clonbern are obvious.

Research in old pattern books has uncovered no clues as to the manufacturer of the Dennis Mausoleum and there are no apparent identifying marks on the structure itself.  Perhaps it was imported to Ireland in kit form and assembled on site.  Maurice Craig in his book Mausolea Hibernica (1999) suggests that it was probably cast in Scotland by the Carron Iron Works (founded 1759), near Falkirk, or some such firm.  On the other hand, Paul Duffy in Clonbern Graveyard: It's Monuments and People (2011) argues that the mausoleum may well have been manufactured by the James Stephens Foundry in Galway, its distinctive profile modelled on a diving bell used in the repair of Galway Dock in 1844.

Dennis Mausoleum 05 - Restored (2011) 

Figure 5: The Dennis Mausoleum following its restoration by Galway County Council Conservation Office in conjunction with Clonbern Community Development Council and The Follies Trust in 2011

The mausoleum was struck by lightning some years ago and was thereafter the victim of vandalism.  However, Galway County Council Conservation Office has recently undertaken a restoration project with financial assistance from the Civic Structures Conservation Grant Scheme and a Maintenance Grant from The Heritage Council.  The project was also supported by the Clonbern Community Development Council and the Follies Trust (fig. 5).

Máirín Doddy, Conservation Officer, Galway County Council, with research by Megan Reese, US ICOMOS Intern

Click here to view the record for the Dennis Mausoleum in the NIAH Galway County Survey

FURTHER READING

Craig, Maurice and Craig, Michael, Mausolea Hibernica (Dublin: The Lilliput Press, 1999)

Mullally, Evelyn (ed.), Clonbern Graveyard: It's Monuments and People (Belfast: The Follies Trust, 2011)

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